First Nations have lived in the Fraser Watershed for thousands of years and hold incredible knowledge on ecosystems and connectivity within the natural world. Since time immemorial, Indigenous People have been stewards of the lands within the Watershed, and continue that significant role today.
About Two-Eyed Seeing
In 2004, Mi’kmaw Elder Albert Marshall introduced the term Etuaptmumk—or, “Two-Eyed Seeing”— as a way of understanding and applying both Indigenous Knowledge and Western science and worldviews to shape a more holistic perspective. In Elder Marshall’s words, Two-Eyed Seeing is: “learning to see from one eye with the strengths of Indigenous knowledges and ways of knowing, and from the other eye with the strengths of Western knowledges and ways of knowing, and to use both of these eyes together, for the benefit of all.”*
Key to this idea is equally valuing and applying both ways of knowing the world, not assimilating one viewpoint into another. Each perspective has its strengths in different forms and areas, with Indigenous Knowledge providing thousands of years of qualitative and holistic ways of knowing, and Western science offering a more quantitative and data-driven approach to understanding the world. This intertwining of different perspectives allows for a wider and deeper understanding of complex issues, including those found within the natural world.
Another core part of Two-Eyed Seeing is the focus on action and what happens after knowledge is imparted. Through the Two-Eyed Seeing approach, knowledge transforms the person who receives it; learners become responsible to act on the knowledge they have gained. The focus is on bringing together people, regardless of background, and using collective understanding to create a better future.
Two-Eyed Seeing has been adapted across Canada as an excellent model for understanding and addressing complex environmental problems. Click on each puzzle piece below to see some of the ways Indigenous Knowledge and Western science and worldviews have been used to better understand the natural world. Then, put the puzzle pieces together to form a complete Fraser River picture.
Keep learning about Watershed CPR with this resource from the Fraser River Discovery Centre: My River, My Home
The Watershed CPR Education Program is a self-guided, virtual learning experience all about the Fraser River, created by the Rivershed Society of BC.
In this virtual experience, users are introduced to the three pillars of Watershed CPR—Connect, Protect, and Restore—through a series of engaging activities and interactives about the Fraser Watershed. Users will learn about the flora and fauna that inhabit the Fraser; the First Nations who have lived in this area since time immemorial; some of the conservation issues affecting the watershed; and how to “perform Watershed CPR” and become a Watershed Defender.
To learn more about Watershed CPR and the Rivershed Society of BC, visit rivershed.com.
Thank you to our partners in development: Cicada Creative and Canadian Geographic, and immense gratitude to the Kwantlen First Nation for their time and contributions to the program. Consultation from Raincoast Conservation Foundation. Funding provided by the Pacific Salmon Foundation, and Environment and Climate Change Canada, via the Environmental Damages Fund.
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This Golden Paw Print means that this is information that can help make your migration journey successful in the Watershed Defender section.